Dictionary of Key Spiritual Terms

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Wylie | Tibetan


See also heaven, hell
  1. 'jig rten/ 

    Biblical: 1) the heavens and the earth; the universe or cosmos: 'jig rten bkod pa nas/  from the creation of the world (Mt. 25:34); 2) the human world, the people of the world: 'jig rten la byams par mdzad do/  [God so] loved the world (Jn. 3:16), 'jig rten gyi skyabs mgon/  the Savior of the world (Jn. 4:42), 'jig rten gyi rgyal khams/  the kingdoms of the world (Mt. 4:8), 'jig rten kun tu song /  go into all the world (Mk. 16:15), 'jig rten gyi 'od/  the light of the world (Mt. 5:14); 3) human life apart from God: 'jig rten pa yis ngo ma shes/  the world did not recognize him (Jn. 1:10), 'jig rten gyi dbang po/  the prince of this world (Jn. 14:30), nga 'jig rten pa min pa ltar/,,de tsho 'jig rten pa min no/  they are not of the world, even as I am not of it (Jn. 17:16), 'jig rten pa ma yin nam/  are you not worldly? (1 Cor. 3:3).

    Buddhist: 1) 'jig rten/  the Bst. cosmos or world system, which is divided into three realms: 1) the purely spiritual Formless Realm or gzugs med khams/  the four heavens of which contain beings with "mental bodies"; 2) the Form Realm or gzugs khams/  with seventeen separate heavens containing gods bound in meditative absorptions; and 3) the Desire Realm or 'dod khams/  which include the six possible rebirths of worldly god, demigod, man, animal, preta, and hell-being. The center of the Desire Realm is Mt. Meru ri rab lhun po/ , with the Jambudvipa continent 'dzam bu gling /  or India to its south, and mythical northern byang sgra mi snyan/ , eastern shar lus 'phags po/ , and western nub ba lang spyod/  continents, the so-called gling bzhi/ . Below the earth lie the eight hot dmyal ba/  and eight cold grang dmyal/  hells. The entire world system was modeled in the architecture of temples like Tibet's Samye complex. 2) 'jig rten bdun/  the seven worlds: the six possible rebirths above plus the bar do/  or intermediate state (CNG 86); 3) worldly, mundane, belonging to the world system: 'jig rten gyi lam/  worldly paths (KBT 103), tshangs pa dang /,,khyab 'jug la sogs pa'i 'jig rten pa'i lha/  worldly gods like Brahma and Vishnu (TRC 96); 4) life in general: 'jig rten phyi ma/  a future life (TRC 225).

    Cognates: 1) 'jig rten las 'das pa/  [lit. passed beyond the world] supernatural, transcendental: 'jig rten las 'das pa'i shes rab/  transcendental wisdom; wisdom beyond this world (TRC 362), 'jig rten las 'das pa'i rnam gzhag metaphysics (DLP 22), 'jig rten las 'das/  the one transcending the world [an epithet of the Buddha] (LKT); 2) 'jig rten khams/  planet Earth, the physical universe (DLP 8); 3) 'jig rten bkod pa po/  a Creator nang pa'i chos lugs su 'jig rten bkod pa po med/  in Tibetan Bsm. there is no Creator (DLP 20).

    Proverbs: chos dang 'jig rten khag khag so so red/  religion and ordinary life are separate (KPU 5).

  2. sa gzhi/ 

    [lit. place, locality]

    Biblical: the earth, the physical world: bden pa'i 'od gsal sa gzhir byon/  the true light was coming into the world (Jn. 1:9), sa gzhi thams cad/  the entire Roman world (Acts 11:28), sa gzhi'i bdag po/  heir [lit. lord, owner] of the world (Rom. 4:13), sa gzhi'i mtha' ma'i bar du/  to the ends of the world (Rom. 10:18), sa gzhi'i mi chen rnams/  the world's great men (Rev. 18:23).

    Buddhist: sa gzhi/  the earth, planet earth: sa gzhi hril po/  the whole earth (DLP 12).

  3. 'dzam gling / 

    [var. 'dzam bu gling /  Skt. Jambudvipa lit. world + island (CTL 145)] 1) the world, the earth: 'dzam gling la ji yod pa dkon mchog gis mdzad pa yin/  God made all that is in the world (DPD), 'dzam gling sa rgyus/  world geography; 2) worldwide or universal: 'dzam gling yongs khyab 'gan khur gyi bsam blo/  a sense of universal responsibility (DLP 10), 'dzam gling yongs khyab tu/  worldwide (DLP 3), jar man hi ti la'i lo rgyus 'dzam gling 'dir grags pa/  the world-famous story of the German, Hitler (TRC 260), 'dzam gling mnyam sbrel rgyal tshogs/  the United Nations (RRT 282, n. 17); 3) Jambudvipa, the ancient name for the subcontinent of India: dang po 'dzam gling 'di dbang du bsgyur/  first he ruled over Jambudvipa (TRC 259); 4) present-day human life: 'dzam gling zhi bde/  world peace (DLP), deng rabs 'dzam gling /  the modern world (DLP 1), 'dzam gling chos lugs/  world religions (DLP 3).