Dictionary of Key Spiritual Terms

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Wylie | Tibetan


See also offering
  1. bsnyen bkur byed/ 

    [hon. zhu/ ] p. byas/  f. bya/  imp. byos/ 

    Biblical: to worship, to show veneration or respect: 1) worship of God: de tsho gtso bo la bsnyen bkur byed cing smyung bar gnas pa'i tshe/  while they were worshiping the Lord and fasting (Acts 13:2), ngas pha mes kyi dkon mchog la bsnyen bkur byed/  I worship the God of our fathers (Acts 24:14); 2) worship of angels: pho nya la bsnyen bkur byed pa/  worship of angels (Col. 2:18); 3) worship of idols: a si a dang 'jig rten gyi mi thams cad kyis bsnyen bkur byed pa'i lha mo chen mo ar ti mi/  the great goddess Artemis who is worshiped throughout the province of Asia and the world (Acts 19:27), khyed kyis rgyus med par bsnyen bkur zhu ba'i dkon mchog the god you worship unknowingly (Acts 17:23); 4) worship of demons: 'dre dang /,,gser dngul ra gan rdo shing la bzos pa'i mthong thos 'grul mi thub pa'i sku 'dra la bsnyen bkur byed/  worshiping demons, and idols of gold, silver, bronze, stone and wood--idols that cannot see or hear or walk (Rev. 9:20), de rnams kyis 'brug la bsnyen bkur byas so/  they worshiped the dragon (Rev. 13:4).

    Buddhist: bsnyen bkur/  to offer respect or service to an object of veneration, e.g the priesthood, or old persons (TDC 1017). Ideally bsnyen bkur/  is done through the "three doors" of the body [offering service]; speech [offering praise, thanksgiving, or respect]; and mind [offering faith, belief, or trust] (KTM).

    Cognates: bsnyen bkur zhu ba rnams/  worshipers (Jn. 4:24).

  2. phyag 'tshal ba/ 

    p. btsal/ 

    Biblical: to bow down in reverence to someone or something that is physically present; or more generally, to worship: 1) worship of Jesus: yum mir yam mnyam du yod pa'i khye'u chung mjal ba dang /,,lus sa la brdabs te phyag 'tshal/  they saw the child with his mother Mary, and they bowed down and worshiped him (Mt. 2:11), rgyal khri'i mdun du dkon mchog la brdab phyag 'tshal/  they fell down on their faces before the throne and worshiped God (Rev. 7:11); 2) worship of Satan: khyed kyis nga la rkyang phyag 'tshal na/,,ngas 'di thams cad khyed la 'bul bar bya'o/  if you bow down and worship me, I will give you all this (Mt. 4:9), gcan zan de dang de'i 'dra sku la phyag ma btsal/  they had not worshiped the beast or his image (Rev. 20:4); 3) worship in general: dkon mchog gtso bo la phyag 'tshal zhing /,,khong gcig pu la bsnyen bkur zhus shig worship the Lord your God, and serve him only (Mt. 4:10), 'khar ba'i thog la brten te phyag btsal/  worshiped as he leaned on the top of his staff (Heb. 11:21).

    Buddhist: 1) phyag 'tshal ba/  or prostrations are an important part of initial refuge-taking in Bsm: lus kyis phyag 'tshal ba de/,,lus kyi skyabs 'gro byed tshul yin/  to do prostrations is the way of going for refuge with the body (REF 115), dang po mkhan por phyag gsum 'tshal dus rkang lag brkyangs te phyag 'tshal dgos red/  at the time when one first salutes the preceptor, one must bow down three times extending the limbs (TRC 5). In a general sense, prostrations should be offered with the body (through outward signs of respect), speech (by praising and thanking the buddhas), and the mind (by developing faith in the Bst. teachings) (JPG 69). Hence: lus ngag yid gsum phyag 'tshal smon lam thobs/  to pray and offer worship with body, speech, and mind (KPU 16); 2) to offer homage to a deity or teacher, especially at the beginning of a literary work: 'jig rten 'das khyod phyag 'tshal 'dud/  [I] bow down to you who have transcended the world [i.e. the Buddha] (LKT 2), sangs rgyas bcom ldan 'das la phyag 'tshal lo/  homage to the victorious Buddha (SGN 1), thugs rje chen po la phyag 'tshal lo/  homage to great compassion (UCO 148).

    Cognates: phyag phul/  worship: dkon mchog gi pho nya thams cad khong la phyag phul zhig let all God's angels worship him (Heb. 1:6), dkon mchog la phyag phul zhig worship God (Rev. 22:9).