Dictionary of Key Spiritual Terms

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  1. sdug bsngal/ 

    Biblical: suffering: sdug bsngal chen po byung ste/  bringing great suffering (Acts 7:11), ma shi ka'i sdug bsngal/  the sufferings of Christ (2 Cor. 1:5). In the Bib. view, suffering, though evil in itself, has redeeming features: sdug bsngal las bzod sems/  suffering [produces] endurance (Rom. 5:3,4), sdug bsngal gyis phun sum tshogs par mdzad pa/  made perfect through suffering (Heb. 2:10). Suffering will be abolished in the new creation (Rev. 21:4).

    Buddhist: In Bsm. suffering is an unmitigated evil produced by the three root afflictions of desire 'dod chags/  hatred zhe sdang /  and ignorance gti mug . Suffering includes virtually all of human experience; even worldly pleasure is considered to be suffering because it soon passes away. The eight archetypal sufferings of man or sdug bsngal brgyad/  are listed as: skye ba/  birth, rga ba/  old age, na ba/  sickness, 'chi ba/  death, sdug pa dang bral ba/  separation from loved ones, mi sdug pa dang phrad pa/  meeting what one does not want, 'dod pa thug tu ma bab pa/  not getting what one wants, nye bar len pa/  taking up the 5 skandhas, i.e. rebirth (DMP 241). Deliverance from suffering sdug bsngal thams cas las thar/  comes from taking refuge skyabs su 'gro ba/  in the three jewels dkon mchog gsum/ .

  2. sdug bsngal myong ba/ 

    p. myangs/  f. myang /  imp. myongs/ 

    Biblical: to suffer, to experience suffering: mkhan po rnams las sdug bsngal mang po myong ba/  suffer many things at the hands of the teachers of the law (Mt. 16:21), am chi mang po bstan kyang sdug bsngal mang po myang /  suffered a great deal under the care of many doctors (Mk. 5:26), khong gi phyir du sdug bsngal myang ba/  to suffer for him (Phil. 1:29).

    Buddhist: to suffer: rang gcig pu gnas gcig tu sdug bsngal myong dgos pa/  he must experience the misery alone in a solitary place (TRC 272), na ba dang /,,rga ba'i sdug bsngal myong skabs/  when [we] experience the sufferings of sickness and old age (DLP 15), rgya mi'i bstan gnon 'og du sdug bsngal myong /  suffering under Chinese oppression (RRT 282, n. 17).

  3. mnar ba/ 

    Biblical: to suffer torment, be tortured: mi'i bu'ang de rnams kyi lag nas mnar 'ong /  the Son of Man is going to suffer at their hands (Mt. 17:12), mi 'chi ba'i me'i chad pas mnar ba/  suffer the punishment of eternal fire (Jude 7).

    Buddhist: nga rang tsho nad kyi mnar ba na/  when we are suffering from an illness (TRC 257); sdug bsngal gyis mnar ba/  the misery of suffering (TRC 342).

    Cognates: 1) mnar med/  the hottest and most terrible of the eight hot hells (TRC 229); 2) mnar gcod gtong ba/  to torture (DLP 9); mnar sems/  a grudge, ill will (TRI 156).