Dictionary of Key Spiritual Terms

Previous | Next | English Index | Tibetan Index | Abbreviations | Contents
Wylie | Tibetan


  1. nga rgyal/ 

    [lit. I + king]

    Biblical: arrogance, conceit, pride: nga rgyal dang /,,blun sems/  arrogance and folly (Mk. 7:22), khengs dregs can dang /,,nga rgyal can dang /,,tshig rtsub smra mkhan/  boastful, proud, and abusive (2 Tim. 3:2), dkon mchog gis nga rgyal can la rgol bar mdzad/  God opposes the proud (Jas. 4:6), khyed tshos nga rgyal gyis ngom par byed/  you boast and brag (Jas. 4:16), nga rgyal gyi blun gtam/  boastful words (2 Pet. 2:18).

    Buddhist: Pride is one of the sinful attitudes often mentioned with desire, hatred, ignorance, wrong view, and envy as one of the "six root delusions" or rtsa nyon drug that cause rebirth and suffering (KTM). Seven types of pride are mentioned in Bst. texts: nga rgyal/  a feeling of arrogance or superiority, che ba'i nga rgyal/  a sense of superiority over equals, nga rgyal las kyang nga rgyal/  extreme conceit or arrogance, mngon pa'i nga rgyal/  false pride in which one claims to know or be something one is not, nga'o snyam pa'i nga rgyal/  a feeling that only you can do something well, cung zad snyam pa'i nga rgyal/  a feeling of being a little better than one's peers, log pa'i nga rgyal/  perverse pride in sins or wrongdoing (CNG 90/DMP 238/TRI 65/KBT 18). nga rgyal khengs dregs/  proud and arrogant (TQP 76).

    Proverbs: 1) don rtsa 'jam po'i sgo nas lon zer na/,,nga rgyal khong khro don med stong pa red/  if you want to achieve your goals peacefully, pride and anger are useless (KPU 14); 2) nga rgyal gyi gong bur/,,yon tan gyi rtswa mi skyes/  the grass of virtue cannot grow under the heap of pride (BTP 86); 3) mjing pa g.yag las sbom pa/  thicker than a yak's neck [used of very proud people] (TQP 97).

    Cognates: nga rgyal skyed/  to be proud: rig pas nga rgyal skyed/,,byams pas yar skyed skyed do/  knowledge puffs up, but love builds up (1 Cor. 8:1), nga rgyal mi skyed phyir/  to keep me from becoming conceited (2 Cor. 12:7), nga rgyal mi skyed/  not to be arrogant (1 Tim. 6:17).

  2. rlom pa/ 

    Biblical: to take pride in, to be conceited: phyogs ris kyis mi rlom phyir/  so you will not take pride in one man over against another (1 Cor. 4:6), re res rang gi khur 'khur dgos pas rang rlom na ma gtogs gzhan gyi mdun du rlom pa'i rgyu mi 'dug he can take pride in himself, without comparing himself to somebody else (Gal 6:4,5).

    Buddhist: rlom sems/  is arrogance or conceit (TRI 263), and as such rlom pa/  normally has a negative connotation (AMD). bde thang du rlom pa'i 'du shes 'khrul pa/  a false sense of security (DLP 16).

  3. ngom/ 

    p. ngoms/ 

    Biblical: to take satisfaction in, to be proud of an accomplishment of oneself or others: nga tsho khyed tsho'i phyir ngom pa'i rgyu zhig yin no/  we are giving you an opportunity to take pride in us (2 Cor. 5:12), spun dma' ba de mthon por btegs par 'gyur bas dma' ba'i gnas su ngoms shig the brother in humble circumstances ought to take pride in his high position (Jas. 1:9), phyug po de dma' bar 'gyur ba la ngoms shig the one who is rich should take pride in his low position (Jas. 1:10), ma shi ka ye shu ngom pa nga tsho/  we who glory in Christ Jesus (Phil.3:3).