Dictionary of Key Spiritual Terms

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Wylie | Tibetan


  1. ngan pa/ 

    Biblical: the most general term for evil: 1) moral evil: ngan pa spang /  forsake evil (Rom. 12:9), ngan pa la mi dga'/  [love] does not delight in evil (1 Cor. 13:6), shab bad kyi zhag la bzang po byed mchog gam ngan pa byed mchog is it permitted to do good or evil on the Sabbath? (Lk. 6:9), ngan pa byas pa rnams/  those who do evil (Jn. 5:29), mi dga' ba'i ngan pa de byed do/  the evil I do not want to do is what I do (Rom. 7:19); 2) morally bad: bsam ngan/  evil thoughts (Mt. 9:4), khyod tsho ngan pa yin bzhin du/  though you are evil (Mt. 7:11), mi thu ba dang ngan pa/  wicked and evil men (2 Thes. 3:2); 3) the evil one, the devil: 'di las lhag pa ji yod ngan pa nas 'byung ngo /  anything beyond this comes from the evil one (Mt. 5:37), ngan pa las nged thar par mdzod/  deliver us from the evil one (Mt. 6:13), ngan pa las srung bar 'gyur ro/  [the Lord] will guard you from the evil one (2 Thes. 3:3). The Biblical doctrine of evil includes both physical (e.g. natural disaster) and moral (e.g. sin) evil.

    Buddhist: Bsm. defines evil as any action which results in suffering (FLD 4), and so concerns itself more with the effects of evil (i.e. suffering) than with its causes. The existence of physical evil is one of the reasons that the Buddha was said to have rejected the concept of God. The Tibetan term ngan pa/  includes both physical evil and moral evil; hence one may speak of gsar 'gyur ngan pa ha cang mang po/  a great deal of bad news (DLP 1), and 'bras ngan pa/  disastrous consequences (DLP 2). Moral evil is implied in such phrases as: nga rang spyod pa ngan pa'i rkyen gyis/  because of my bad behaviour (DPD), grogs po ngan pa rnams/  evil companions (DPD), bsam sbyor ngan pas rgyud bskul te/  inspired him to evil thought and action (TRC 114), ngan song gsum/  the three evil destinies [of birth as a hell-being, preta, or animal] (TRC 272).

    Proverbs: 1) ngan pa bskyangs na bzang po brdungs pa 'dra/  protecting the evil person is the same as hitting a good person (KPU 15); 2) ngan pa'i rjes la ltas ngan gtam ngan yod/  bad omens and bad news follow a bad man (KPU 21); 3) kha ngan khog ngan/  evil speech and evil mind [lit. inside] - someone who is thoroughly evil (TQP 35); 4) ngan pa tshar ma bcad na/,,bzang po spro ba mi skye/  if evil people [i.e. criminals] are not done away with, good people cannot be happy (TQP 77).

  2. mi rigs pa/ 

    Biblical: wrong or improper: mi rigs pa la mi dga'i/  [love] does not delight in evil (1 Cor. 13:6 SV), lce yang me yin/,,nga tsho'i yan lag gi nang na mi rigs pa thams cad kyi 'jig rten/  the tongue also is a fire, a world of evil among the parts of the body (Jas. 3:6 SV).